Definitions Total safety definition Hazard’s scientific definition in safety comprise, is a condition with the potential of causing harm to personnel, equipment and structures, deterioration of materials or reduction of performance in the execution of a task is predetermined. When Hazard exists, the possibility of occurring negative effects are probable. The word Danger indicates exposure to Hazard, thus safety’s definition has conflicts with Danger definition and seeks to remove potential hazards in the workplace. Simple definition of safety: in dictionary the meaning is, security, health and etc. and in term means the degree of escaping from the risks. Full safety: the protection against any kind of damage, injury and destruction due to the variability of humans and unpredictability of behaviors and other reasons, it seem s that there have been no complete safety even in the short periods, hence experts usually use terms such as safety improvements and so on instead of safety definition, hence it is said that safety is a relative protection against dangers. System: is a set of people, equipment, rules, methods and procedures to perform a specific action with each other in a particular environment. Safety of the system: is the application of technical and management skills in a systematic and forward looking form to identify and control risks in the lifetime of a project, program or activity, simply safety is the process of analyzing risks and controlling them, that begins from …

Definitions
Total safety definition
Hazard’s scientific definition in safety comprise, is a condition with the potential of causing harm to personnel, equipment and structures, deterioration of materials or reduction of performance in the execution of a task is predetermined. When Hazard exists, the possibility of occurring negative effects are probable. The word Danger indicates exposure to Hazard, thus safety’s definition has conflicts with Danger definition and seeks to remove potential hazards in the workplace.
Simple definition of safety: in dictionary the meaning is, security, health and etc. and in term means the degree of escaping from the risks.
Full safety: the protection against any kind of damage, injury and destruction due to the variability of humans and unpredictability of behaviors and other reasons, it seem s that there have been no complete safety even in the short periods, hence experts usually use terms such as safety improvements and so on instead of safety definition, hence it is said that safety is a relative protection against dangers.
System: is a set of people, equipment, rules, methods and procedures to perform a specific action with each other in a particular environment.
Safety of the system: is the application of technical and management skills in a systematic and forward looking form to identify and control risks in the lifetime of a project, program or activity, simply safety is the process of analyzing risks and controlling them, that begins from the phase of idea constructing and continues during design, implementation, test and utilization phases.
Risk is the possibility of an accident in terms of probability and severity (risk=probability*intensity)
Risk assessment: refers to the consideration of the combined frequency and consequences. Hence the estimation of risk needs frequency and consequence analysis. The severity of the risk: is classified as a description based on real or perceived potential of causing injury, damage or harm, indicative of seriousness of the risk and its potential effects. Potential risk: is a condition that has the potential of harming persons, damage to equipment and buildings, deterioration of materials and etc.
Actual danger: the word expresses relative exposure to potential risks, however when a potential risk exists, not necessarily an actual danger will be encountered.
Hazard identification: recognition process of a hazard and determining its features.
Accident: Means an unforeseen and unexpected event that causes the damage and an unplanned and unwanted event that caused the injury or financial loss.
Incident: refers to events that have potential to cause death or damage to the equipment or environment. (Any event that causes casualties or financial loss or it could be the cause). (Incident=accident*near miss)
Near miss: an unplanned event that inhibits all the necessary conditions to cause accident, but with some luck (not design condition) has been passed without loss.
Work injury: work-related accidents in Article 60 of the Social Security Act is defined as follows: work injury is an accident when occurs during the period of his duty, and the person has been insured relating to that.
Other definitions of incidents: something unforeseen and sudden that happens without the desire of the person, and causes physical and psychological effects or financial losses.
ILO: Unforeseen and unexpected events that cause damage and injury.
OHSAS 180001: unexpected event leading to death, illness, injury, damage and loss result.
The accident severity index: the number of lost days of work, is the most important indicator of the severity of injuries to different organs of the human body based on estimation of lost days and for example in 1991, in USA it was determined to be 75000 dollars for death.
Primary events: primary accidents are fundamentals to dangerous conditions and if it can be controlled to not entering the next stage or preventing the accidents, as an example, long working hours and severe fatigue of an operator and loss of strength and efficiency of a pump can provide risk of an accident to occur.
Initiating events: events that will trigger accidents, such as the creation of a flammable material with an ignition or a sudden connection with a 220 Volts current with a 110 Volts current.
Intermediate events that may happen in two ways: provocative and restrictive.
Opened doors when a fire starts, are a stimulus and intensifier factor where opening a safety valve in a boiler at high temperature can be a preventive and restrictive factor. In case of lack of attention to the safety issues in risks of processes, events will occur that depending on their rate of destruction are listed below:
• Catastrophic: these kind of events can cause various damages such as death and injuries, like overturning a truck containing chemicals like ammonia and distributing it in the environment
• Critical: these events would cause severe injuries or losing an important hardware that by its stoppage the production will be stopped for a long time, like appearing defects in the hydraulic pressure valve that causes explosion or damage to other parts.
• Minor|: events that cause little injury and damage to the equipment, like making an automatic valve to stay open in the path of a chemical tanker and causing the container head to be over.
• Negligible: incidents that cause no hurt and damage to equipment and no problem occur in the production stage like economic power reduction in a factory that leads to the factory to be closed.
According to this classification, initially the safety engineer should recognize that what type and level of safety is needed, or in other words, the cost estimation of the accident prevention should be acceptable by the employer, hence the safety goals for the factory should be presented.
Non-compliancy: Any deviation from work standards, guidelines, procedures, regulations, management system performance etc. that directly or indirectly lead to injury, disease, destruction of property, destruction of the environment or a combination of these.
Accident Frequency Rate: Represents the number of incidents in a certain time working hours dividing to benefit worker hours at the same time for 500 workers.
Accident Severity Rate: This ratio reflects the lost days due to an accident at a certain time working hours dividing to benefit worker hours at the same time for 500 workers.
Unsafe activities: refers to any kind of work done by one or more workers in a way that increases the likelihood of an accident.
Unsafe activities
• Lack of professional standards at work
• Lack of adequate training
• Physical or mental disability, non-compliance with standards
• Inappropriate standards and lack of review
• No encourage in production and lack of adequate monitoring
• High working pressure
Unsafe conditions: Consists of all the circumstances that may be at risk for a worker’s physical, chemical, ergonomic, mechanical and placed, without having the possibility of preventing the exposure by itself.
Audit: systematic review to determine whether activities and related results comply with planned programs and whether these plans are implemented effectively and are suitable to achieve policies and goals of the organization.
What is the purpose of safe and unsafe situation? A place, a job or equipment is considered to be safe whenever the risk of death, injury or illness for the personnel, is acceptably low. In general it can be said that the lower the level of acceptable risk, the higher the level of safety. In fact, professional health makes decrease in the rate of sickness and safety in industry deals with decrease in the rate of the risks.
Industry safety
Industry safety engineering: according to the definition of safety, safety engineering is ‘regulations that are used in order to reduce accidents by eliminating or controlling the risks’. In industrial safety engineering issues that are considered for safe work environment include:
• Accident prevention
• Human factors
• The design and layout of machinery and equipment
• Management and navigation of safety
• Education
• Inspection
Scope of safety engineering has become more developed recently, and includes various branches in university fields such as:
• Risk management
• Risk prevention
• Fire engineering
• Risk control
Management and navigation of safety: the manager is responsible of safety and health of the personnel, as a manager inhibits a great responsibility for productivity and profitability of the system; this also includes the safety and health of the personnel. Lost production may be achieved through improved management methods but, there is no way of compensation when loss of life of personnel occurs. It is agreed by experts that only 15 percent of the problems with the organization or plant management may be controlled by staff and the resolution, while 85% of these problems can be controlled through management.
The main factors in safety management:
• Safety planning
• Safety organization and its activities
• Conducting safety programs
• Controlling the performance and obtained results
The definition of prevention: it includes all activities to prevent or reduce the percentage of occurrence of incidents. For example, all measures and tools to prevent accidents in a building, and establishing safety factors when constructing a building.
Prediction definition: includes all measures that come to the mind in order to prevent accidents.
Differences between anticipation and prevention: prediction is a mental function and it has not been implemented.

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